Section I Use of English
Read the following text. Choose the best word （s） for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. （10 points）
Weighing yourself regularly is a wonderful way to stay aware of any significant weight fluctuations. 1 , when done too often, this habit can sometimes hurt more than it 2 .
As for me, weighing myself every day caused me to shift my focus from being generally healthy and physically active to focusing 3 on the scale. That was had to my overall fitness goats. I had gained weight in the form of muscle mass, but thinking only of 4 the number on the scale, I altered my training program. That conflicted with how I needed to train to 5 my goals.
I also found that weighing myself daily did not provide an accurate 6 of the hard work and progress I was making in the gym. It takes about three weeks to a month to notice any significant changes in your weight 7 altering your training program. The most 8 changes will be observed in skill level, strength and inches lost.
For these 9 , I stopped weighing myself every day and switched to a bimonthly weighing schedule 10 . Since weight loss is not my goal, it is less important for me to 11 my weight each week. Weighing every other week allows me to observe and 12 any significant weight changes. That tells me whether I need to 13 my training program.
I use my bimonthly weigh-in 14 to get information about my nutrition as well. If my training intensity remains the same, but I’m constantly 15 and dropping weight, this is a 16 that I need to increase my daily caloric intake.
The 17 to stop weighing myself every day has done wonders for my overall health, fitness and well-being. I’m experiencing increased zeal for working out since I no longer carry the burden of a 18 morning weigh-in. I’ve also experienced greater success in achieving my specific fitness goals, 19 I’m training according to those goals, not the numbers on a scale.
Rather than 20 over the scale, turn your focus to how you look, feel how your clothes fit and your overall energy level.
1.[A]Besides [B]Therefore [C]Otherwise [D]However
【解析】此處考察邏輯關系。首段提出文章中心：定期稱量自己是一種解任何顯著的的體重波動的好方法?？嶄袼誥渲賦觶篲___，如果太頻繁，這種習慣有時會造成損害。前文wonderful way（好方法）與后文hurt（損害）形成轉折關系，故填入however（然而）。另外，however也是考研完形填空中的高頻詞。其他選項：therefore（因此），otherwise（否則）和besides（此外）此處不符合語境，故正確答案為[C] However。
2.[A]helps [B]cares [C]warns [D]reduces
【解析】此處考察反義復現?？嶄袼誥渲賦觶簍his habit can sometimes hurt more than it ____（這種習慣的壞處要比____多），應該是help（有幫助，有好處），與前文hurt（損害）形成反義復現。其他選項：Cares（關心），warns（警告），reduces（減少，致使）均不能與hurt形成呼應，故正確答案為[D] helps。
3.[A]initially [B]solely [C]occasionally [D]formally
【解析】此處考察同義復現+詞義辨析?？嶄袼誥渲賦觶褐劣諼?，每天稱自己的重量讓我把注意力從保持健康和好動轉移到____專注于體重秤。填入solely（僅僅）語義通順。另外本句focusing solely on the scale中的solely（僅僅）與本段后文thinking only of ____ the number on the scale的only形成了同義復現。故正確答案為[A] solely。
4.[A]recording [B] lowering [C]explaining [D]accepting
【解析】此處考察詞義辨析+反義復現?？嶄袼誥渲賦觶何以栽黽蛹∪夂慷鮒?，但后來只考慮____體重的數量，我改變了我的訓練方案。填入lowering（減少）語義通順。另外，該句中間有but，說明前后為轉接。lower與前文gain weight（增重）形成反義復現，其他選項：explaining（解釋），accepting（接受），recording（記錄）均不符合文意。故正確答案為[A] lowering。
6.[A]definition [B]depiction [C]distribution [D]prediction
7.[A]due to [B]regardless of [C]aside from [D]along with
【答案】[D] due to
【解析】此處考察短語辨析?？嶄袼誥淶木湟猓盒枰笤既艿揭桓鱸碌氖奔淅捶⑾痔逯氐南災浠?，_____改變了你的訓練計劃?？嶄翊λ釗氳畝逃鐨枰頹懊婢渥庸鉤梢蜆穆嘸叵?，只有D選項due to（由于）符合要求；A選項regardless of（不管，不顧），B選aside from（除…以外），C選項along with（與…一起，連同）帶入后，語義不通順。故正確答案為[D]due to。
8.[A]orderly [B]rigid [C]precise [D]immediate
9.[A]claims [B]judgments [C]reasons [D]methods
【解析】此處考察固定搭配。for these reasons由于這些原因?？嶄袼誥渲賦觶河捎謖廡┰潁ㄉ銜奶岬降腦潁?，我停止每天稱體重。只有B選項reasons（原因）符合要求；A選項judgments（判斷），C選methods（方法，方式），D選項claims（要求，索賠）帶入后，語義不通順。故正確答案為[B]reasons。
10.[A]instead [B]though [C]again [D]indeed
【解析】此處考察詞義辨析以及上下文語境分析?？嶄袼誥淶那鞍氬糠種賦觶河捎諫鮮鱸?，我停止每天稱體重。后半句話句意：而轉而改用兩個月稱一次體重。switched to轉而…與選項instead對應。D選項instead （代替，反而）符合語義要求；A選項though（雖然，盡管），B選項again（又，再一次），C選項indeed（的確，實在）帶入空格后，語義不通順，均排除。故正確答案為D選項instead。
11.[A]track [B]overlook [C] conceal [D]report
【解析】空格所在句提到：Since weight loss is not my goal（因為減重不是我的目的），it is less important for me to ____my weight each week（對我來說，每周___我的體重不太重要）?？嶄翊λ釗氳畝市枰禿竺嫻謀鲇飉y weight構成通順的動賓語義搭配，除此之外，本文的主題是稱重，因此需要觀察、監測或跟蹤體重的變化，因此只有A選項track符合語義與主題要求。
12.[A]depend on [B]approve of [C]hold onto [D]account for
【答案】C. account for
【解析】空格所在句提到：Weighing every other week allows me to observe and _____any significant weight changes（每隔一周稱次體重使我能夠觀察及____任何明顯的體重變化），空格處所填入的動詞需和后面的賓語weight changes構成通順的動賓搭配；同時，該動詞還和observe構成并列關系，并列的動詞會存在動作先后發生的特點（先觀察到體重變化，再來了解或解釋體重變化的原因），因此只有C選項account for（解釋，了解）更恰當。
13.[A]share [B]adjust [C]confirm [D] prepare
【解析】空格所在處提到：That tells me whether I need to ____my training program（那告訴我，我是否需要____我的訓練項目）?？嶄翊λ疃市枰禿竺嫻謀鲇飔raining program 構成順暢的動賓語義關系；除此之外，that指代上文中“觀察并了解體重變化”，因此此處應該表明，觀察并了解體重變化能讓我知道是否需要調整訓練項目。因此B選項adjust符合要求。
14.[A]results [B]features [C]rules [D]tests
【解析】空格處所在句提到：I use my bimonthly weigh-in____to get information about my nutrition as well（我根據兩個月稱重一次的___來獲得關于我的營養方面的信息）?？嶄翊λ蠲市韜蚥imonthly weigh-in構成順暢的語義關系，空格處上文提到“兩個月稱重一次可以觀察并了解任何明顯的體重變化”，因此空格處應該表示“稱重結果”，故D選項results為正確答案。
15.[A]bored [B]anxious [C]hungry [D]sick
【解析】空格處提到：if……I am constantly____and dropping weight, this is a sign that I need to increase my daily caloric intake（如果……我持續___以及體重下降，那么這是一個標志表明我需要增加日?？防鍔閎耄?，根據條件狀從和主句的條件與結果的邏輯關系，空格處填入“hungry（饑餓）”更符合語義要求。
16.[A]principle [B]secret [C]belief [D]sign
17.[A]request [B]necessity [C]decision [D]wish
【解析】空格后動詞不定式結構“to stop weighing myself every day”作空格處名詞的定語，“停止每天稱體重這個_____”，根據語義，此處填decision“決定”最合理。
18.[A]disappointing [B]surprising [C]restricting [D]consuming
19.[A]if because [B]unless [C]until [D]consuming
【解析】根據選項特征看出本題考查句內邏輯關系，前半句話“I’ve also experienced greater success in achieving my specific fitness goals”（我也更成功地實現了健身目標），后半句“I’m training according to those goals, mot the numbers on scale.”（我根據那些目標來訓練，而不是體重數字。）此處應為因果關系，所以正確選項為because。此外，本句話中的“also”表明與前一句話之間的關系，前一句話中的since也表示因果關系。
20.[A]obsessing [B]dominating [C]puzzling [D]triumphing
【解析】根據選項特征，此空填入動詞的現在分詞，其邏輯主語為句子主語you，賓語為thescale，通過上文可知，作者對于“the scale”一直持否定態度，因此此空根據語義色彩排除dominating“統治”和triumphing“勝利”，而puzzling over 表示“仔細琢磨，冥思苦想”，與上下文語義不符。因此選obsessing“使困擾”。
Section II Reading Comprehension
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A,B,C or D.Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET.（40 points）
Unlike so-called basic emotions such as sadness, fear, and anger, guilt emerges a little later, in conjunction with a child’s growing grasp of social and moral norms. Children aren’t born knowing how to say “I’m sorry”； rather, they learn over time that such statements appease parents and friends—and their own consciences. This is why researchers generally regard so-called moral guilt, in the right amount, to be a good thing.
In the popular imagination, of course, guilt still gets a bad rap. It is deeply uncomfortable—it’s the emotional equivalent of wearing a jacket weighted with stones. Yet this understanding is outdated. “There has been a kind of revival or a rethinking about what guilt is and what role guilt can serve,” says Amrisha Vaish, a psychology researcher at the University of Virginia, adding that this revival is part of a larger recognition that emotions aren’t binary—feelings that may be advantageous in one context may be harmful in another. Jealousy and anger, for example, may have evolved to alert us to important inequalities. Too much happiness can be destructive.
And guilt, by prompting us to think more deeply about our goodness, can encourage humans to make up for errors and fix relationships. Guilt, in other words, can help hold a cooperative species together. It is a kind of social glue.
Viewed in this light, guilt is an opportunity. Work by Tina Malti, a psychology professor at the University of Toronto, suggests that guilt may compensate for an emotional deficiency. In a number of studies, Malti and others have shown that guilt and sympathy may represent different pathways to cooperation and sharing. Some kids who are low in sympathy may make up for that shortfall by experiencing more guilt, which can rein in their nastier impulses. And vice versa: High sympathy can substitute for low guilt.
In a 2014 study, for example, Malti looked at 244 children. Using caregiver assessments and the children’s self-observations, she rated each child’s overall sympathy level and his or her tendency to feel negative emotions after moral transgressions. Then the kids were handed chocolate coins, and given a chance to share them with an anonymous child. For the low-sympathy kids, how much they shared appeared to turn on how inclined they were to feel guilty. The guilt-prone ones shared more, even though they hadn’t magically become more sympathetic to the other child’s deprivation.
“That’s good news,” Malti says. “We can be prosocial because we caused harm and we feel regret.”
21.Researchers think that guilt can be a good thing because it may help______.
A）regulate a child's basic emotions
B）improve a child's intellectual ability
C）foster a child’s moral development
D）intensity a child's positive feelings
【答案】C foster a child’s positive feelings
【解析】根據題干“researchers”， “guilt”， “a good thing”關鍵詞定位到第一段最后一句，除此之外，提干中還有關鍵詞“because”， 判定該題屬于細節題中考查因果邏輯關系的題目，需要在原文中精準回文定位；原文中第一段最后一段明確出現了“This is why researchers generally regard so-called moral guilt…a good thing.”根據代詞向前文指代的原則，題干中所問的原因就在上一句，由“Children aren’t born knowing how to say ‘I’m sorry’， rather, they learn over time that such statements appease parents and friends----and their own conscience”，其中的“such statements appease parents and friends----and their own conscience”（該品質能夠使父母/朋友和孩子自己都感覺更舒適），such statements指代的即為“say sorry”或文章主題詞guilt, 縱觀四個選型，只有C選項foster a child’s moral development（提高孩子的道德發展）可以實現同義替換，故為正確答案。其余選項A.regulate a child’s basic emotions （管理孩子基本情緒）中的regulate原文未提及， B. improve a child’s intellectual ability（改善孩子的智力）中intellectual ability原文未提及，而D.intensify a child’s positive feelings（加強孩子的積極感覺）在原文中未提及，故排除。
22.According to paragraph 2, many people still consider guilt to be______.
【解析】 根據題干可知這是一個典型的細節題。根據題干關鍵信息 “paragraph 2, “ many people still consider guild to be”定位到第二段，最終鎖定對本段第二句話的理解，尤其關鍵的是對第二句話中破折號的理解，“it is deeply uncomfortable-it’s the emotional equivalent of wearing a jacket weighted with stones. ” （這種感覺非常不舒服，就像穿著一件石頭做的夾克一樣） , 對比所給四個選項，只有 B 項“burdensome”（負擔沉重的，繁重的）與原文表述一致，故為最佳答案。 A項“deceptive” （欺騙的） C項“addictive”（上癮的） 以及D項“inexcusable” （不可原諒的）均與原文表述不一致，故排除。
23. Vaish hold that the rethinking about guilt comes from an awareness that______.
A）emotions are context-independent
B）emotions are socially constructive
C）emotional stability can benefit health
D）an emotion can play opposing roles
【答案】D an emotion can play opposing roles
【解析】根據題干可知這是一個典型的細節題。根據題干關鍵信息 “Vaish holds that …awareness that.” 定位本文的第二段 “There has been a kind of revival or a rethinking …can serve.”但是這句話是他的觀點句，也就是題干信息所在句，本句沒有答案，因此，根據線性思維，下文他又繼續補充到“adding that this revival is a psychology researcher……in another ”（這種復興是更大的認識的一部分，即情緒不是二元情感，在一個情境中有利的情緒在另一個情境中可能是有害的）， 對比四個選項，只有 D“an emotion can play opposing roles” （情緒可以起到相反的作用） 為最佳答案。A項“emotions are context-independent”（情緒與語境無關）與原文表述相反。 B 項“emotions are socially constructive”（從社會角度講，情緒具有積極性） 在文中沒有提及。C項“emotional stability can benefit health”（情緒穩定有益與身體健康） 在文中沒有提及，故排除。
24. Malti and others have shown that cooperation and sharing _______.
A. may help correct emotional deficiencies
B. can result from either sympathy or guilt
C. can bring about emotional satisfaction
D. may be the outcome of impulsive acts
【答案】B can result from either sympathy or guilt
【解析】根據題干可知這是一道人物觀點題。根據題干關鍵詞“Malti and others have shown 與cooperation and sharing.”回文定位到第四段第三句：“Malti and others have shown that guilt and sympathy may represent different pathways to cooperation and sharing.” （馬爾蒂和其他人已經表明，內疚和同情可能代表了合作和分享的不同途徑。） 對比四個選項，只有B項 can result from either sympathy or guilt（要么歸因于同情，要么歸因于內疚）與原文表述一致，故為正確選項。A項may help correct emotional deficiencies（可能有助于改正情感缺陷）與第四段第二句話… that guilt may compensate for an emotional deficiency（內疚可能會彌補情感缺陷）不符。C項can bring about emotional satisfaction（能夠帶來情感上的滿足）并未提及。D項may be the outcome of impulsive acts （可能是沖動行為的結果） 與第四段第三句…which can rein in their nastier impulses（這可以控制他們更糟糕的沖動）因果倒置，故排除。
25. The word “transgressions” （Para.5） is closest in meaning to _______.
【解析】根據題干要求定位到第五段第二句話“Using caregiver assessments and the children’s self-observations, she rated each child's overall sympathy level and his or her tendency to feel negative emotions after moral transgressions.” 且位于主句的“transgressions”的前面出現to feel negative emotions，情感屬于消極貶義。對比四個選項，D項wrongdoings壞事，不道德的行為，屬于貶義詞，與其情感色彩一致，故為正確選項。A項teachings 教導，屬于褒義詞。B項discussions 討論，屬于中性詞 。C項restrictions 限制；約束，屬于中性詞，故排除。
Forests give us shade, quiet and one of the larder callenges in the fight against climate change. Even as we humans count on forests to soak up a good share of the carbon dioxide we produce, we are threatening their ability to do so. The climate change we are hastening could one day leave us with forests that emit more carbon than they absorb.
Thankfully, there is a way out of this trap-but it involves striking a subtle balance. Helping forests flourish as valuable “carbon sinks” long into the future may require reducing their capacity to absorb carbon now. California is leading the way, as it does on so many climate efforts, in figuring out the details.
The state’s proposed Forest Carbon Plan aims to double efforts to thin out young trees and clear brush in parts of the forest. This temporarily lowers carbon-carrying capacity. But the remaining trees draw a greater share of the available moisture, so they grow and thrive, restoring the forest’s capacity to pull carbon from the air. Healthy trees are also better able to fend off insects. The landscape is rendered less easily burnable. Even in the event of a fine, fewer trees are consumed.
The need for such planning is increasingly urgent. Already, since 2010, drought and insects have killed over 100 million trees in California, most of them in 2016 alone, and wildfires have burned hundreds of thousands of acres.
California plans to treat 35,000 acres of forest a year by 2020, and 60,000 by 2030- financed from the proceeds of the state’s emissions- permit auctions. That’s only a small share of the total acreage that could benefit, about half a million acres in all, so it will be vital to prioritize areas at greatest risk of fire or drought.
The strategy also aims to ensure that carbon in woody material removed from the forests is locked away in the form of solid lumber or burned as biofuel in vehicles that would otherwise run on fossil fuels. New research on transportation biofuels is already under way.
State governments are well accustomed to managing forests, but traditionally they’ve focused on wildlife, watersheds and opportunities for recreation. Only recently have they come to see the vital part forests will have to play in storing carbon. California’s plan, which is expected to be finalized by the governor next year, should serve as a model.
26. By saying “one of the harder challenges,” the author implies that _______.
A. global climate change may get out of control
B. people may misunderstand global warming
C. extreme weather conditions may arise
D. forests may become a potential threat
【答案】D forests may become a potential threat
【解析】 根據題干信息詞定位到首段。第一句引出文章話題“在人類對抗氣候變化中，森林給我們帶來了一個更為艱巨的挑戰。”第二句指出人類正在威脅到森林吸收二氧化碳的能力。第三句“The climate change we are hastening could one day leave us with forest that emit more carbon than they absorb.”為本段的主題句，指出我們人類所造成的氣候變化問題最終會使得森林排放更多的二氧化碳，而不是吸收。即森林可能會威脅氣候的惡化和人類的生存。故選擇D項“森林可能會變為一個潛在威脅。”
27. To maintain forests as valuable “carbon sinks,” we may need to _______.
A. preserve the diversity of species in them
B. accelerate the growth of young trees
C. strike a balance among different plants
D. lower their present carbon-absorbing capacity
【答案】D Lower their present carbon-absorbing capacity
【解析】根據題干要求定位到第二段。該段首句中的前半句there is a way out of this trap對應題干中To maintain forest as valuable “carbon sinks”， 后半句提出具體的解決方法it involves striking a subtle balance（這需要達到一個微妙的平衡），但并沒有說這個平衡是不同植被間的平衡，故不能據此選[C]strike a balance among different plants。緊接著第二句提到要達到這一目的可能需要reducing their （forests’） capacity to absorb carbon now（降低他們（森林）現在吸收碳的能力），由此可知正確答案應為[D]選項。
28. California’s Forest Carbon Plan endeavors to _______.
A. cultivate more drought-resistant trees
B. reduce the density of some of its forests
C. find more effective ways to kill insects
D. restore its forests quickly after wildfires
【答案】B reduce the density of some of its forests
【解析】細節題做題的技巧是“準確定位和匹配”。根據題干關鍵詞 “Forest Carbon Plan”定位至第三段第一句話。題干中問題是“endeavor to”表示“努力做…”對應文章中 “double efforts to” ,因此答案在這個短語之后即“thin out young trees and clear brush in parts of the forest”表示的意思是使“森林里部分小樹變稀疏，清理部分灌木”，這與選項C中的“reduce the density of some of its fforests”即“降低森林的密度”一致。因此正確答案選C。
29. What is essential to California’s plan according to Paragraph 5?
A.To handle the areas in serious danger first.
B.To carry it out before the year of 2020.
C.To perfect the emissions-permit auctions.
D.To obtain enough financial support.
【答案】A To handle the areas inserious danger first
【解析】根據題目定位到第5段，題目What is essential to California's plan 中的essential可回文定位，對應原文中的so it will be vital to prioritize areas at greatest risk of fire or drought的vital，其后的prioritize對應選項中的handle…first，areas at greatest risk對應選項中的the areas in serious danger，故正確選項為A。
30. The author’s attitude to California’s plan can best be described as _______.
【解析】根據題干關鍵詞“attitude”，可確定是態度題。做態度題的核心是把握明顯感情色彩的關鍵詞，即可快速得出答案。而在文章的最后一段，往往會出現本文的結論，容易出現感情色彩的關鍵詞。根據最后一段最后一句，California's plan, which is ……， should serve as a model （California的計劃應該能夠起到榜樣作用），model是一個積極色彩的詞匯，所以答案選B supportive 支持的。
American farmers have been complaining of labor shortages for several years. The complaints are unlikely to stop without an overhaul of immigration rules for farm workers.
Congress has obstructed efforts to create a more straightforward visa for agricultural workers that would let foreign workers stay longer in the U.S. and change jobs within the industry. If this doesn’t change, American businesses, communities, and consumers will be the losers.
Perhaps half of U.S. farm laborers are undocumented immigrants. As fewer such workers enter the country, the characteristics of the agricultural workforce are changing. Today’s farm laborers, while still predominantly born in Mexico, are more likely to be settled rather than migrating and more likely to be married than single. They’re also aging. At the start of this century, about one-third of crop workers were over the age of 35. Now more than half are. And picking crops is hard on older bodies. One oft-debated cure for this labor shortage remains as implausible as it’s been all along: Native U.S. workers won’t be returning to the farm.
Mechanization isn’t the answer, either—not yer, at least. Production of corn, cotton, rice, soybeans, and wheat has been largely mechanized, but many high-value, labor-intensive corps, such as strawberries, need labor. Even dairy farms, where robots do a small share of milking, have a long way to go before they’re automated.
As a result, farms have grown increasingly reliant on temporary guest workers using the H-2A visa to fill the gaps in the workforce. Starting around 2012, requests for the visas rose sharply; from 2011 to 2016 the number of visas issued more than doubled.
The H-2A visa has no numerical cap, unlike the H-2B visa for nonagricultural work, which is limited to 66,000 a year. Even so, employers complain they aren’t given all the workers they need. The process is cumbersome, expensive, and unreliable. One survey found that bureaucratic delays led the average H-2A worker to arrive on the job 22 days late. The shortage is compounded by federal immigration raids, which remove some workers and drive others underground.
In a 2012 survey, 71 percent of tree-fruit growers and almost 80 percent of raisin and berry growers said they were short of labor. Some western farmers have responded by moving operations to Mexico. From 1998 to 2000, 14.5 percent of the fruit Americans consumed was imported. Little more than a decade later, the share of imports was 25.8 percent.
In effect, the U.S. can import food or it can import the workers who pick it.
31. What problem should be addressed according to the first two paragraphs?
A. Discrimination against foreign workers in the U.S.
B. Biased laws in favor of some American businesses.
C. Flaws in U.S. immigration rules for farm workers.
D. Decline of job opportunities U.S. agriculture.
【答案】 [C] Flaws in U.S. immigration rules for farm workers
【解析】根據題干提示詞first two paragraphs可知本題依據文章前兩段命制，為雙段推理型題目?？燜偕ǘ量芍傲蕉未笠馕好攔攵醞飫磁┟袼ㄒ潑窆嬖蛑寫嬖諞恍┪侍?，并指出如不及時解決美國商業，社會以及消費者都會受到影響。比對選項可直接判斷正確選項為C項，其余選項均屬無中生有，直接排除。
32. One trouble with U.S. agricultural workforce is .
A. the rising number of illegal immigrants
B. the high mobility of crop workers
C. the lack of experienced laborers
D. the aging of immigrant farm workers
【答案】[D] the aging of immigrant farm workers
【解析】細節推理題。根據題干中的trouble, U.S. agricultural workforce以及段落序列定位到文中第三段第二句。定位段第三至七句都在論證第二句的內容，其中第三句論證的是勞動力的來源及其傾向，第四至七句論證的是勞動力在變老并指出picking crops is hard on older bodies. 與選項D吻合。選項A中的rising及illegal屬于無中生有，選項B中的high mobility與定位段中的farm labors are more likely to be settled rather than immigrating矛盾，選項C屬無中生有。
33.What is the much-argued solution to the labor shortage in U.S. farming?
A. To attract younger laborers to farm work.
B. To get native U.S. workers back to farming.
C. To use more robots to grow high-value crops.
D. To strengthen financial support for farmers.
【答案】 [B] To get native U.S. workers back to farming.
【解析】細節題。根據題干中的much-argued solution to the labor shortage定位到第三段最后一句，其中oft-debated對應原文的much-argued，solution對應原文的cure，剩余信息出答案，冒號解釋了這個經常被談論的方法：美國本國工人不會重返農場。說明本身的解決方法是讓美國本國工人回到農場，與選項[B]一致。[A]選項attract younger laborers在文章未體現，文章只是提到現在的farm laborer在老齡化。[C]選項出現在文章的第四段，文章只是說在high-value crops上需要勞動力。在乳牛場機器人只做了一小部分工作。選項將兩部分雜糅在一起了。[D]選項中financial support在文中未提及，屬于無中生有。
34. Agricultural employers complain about the H-2A visa for its .
A. slow granting procedures
B. limit on duration of stay
C. tightened requirements
D. control of annual admissions
【答案】 [A] slow granting procedures
【解析】 因果細節題。根據題干中的具體信息，agricultural employers，complain，about the H-2A visa?；匚畝ㄎ壞降諏?。根據具體信息定位到第六段的，Employers complain they aren’t given all the workers they need.這句話是抱怨的內容，文中問的是原因，緊接著下面一句話，the process is cumbersome，expensive，and unreliable.并且在這句話后面one survey 是例子。根據例子證明論點，下面的例子和前面的the process這句話表達的觀點是一致的。同時，在例子中有for的同義詞lead to，導致了arrive on the job 22 days late. Delay，late 對應選項中的slow，procedure對應process。所以選A。 B中的limit，原文后面跟著是人數66,000，偷換概念。C中的request出現在例子中，說的是visa rose sharply。D項文中未提及，無中生有。
35. Which of the following could be the best title for this text?
A. U.S. Agriculture in Decline?
B. Import Food or Labor?
C. America Saved by Mexico?
D. Manpower vs. Automation?
【答案】B Import Food or Labor?
Amold Schwarzenegger. Dia Mirza and Adrian Grenier have a message for you. It’s easy to beat plastic. They’re part of a bunch of celebrities starring in a new video for World Environment Day—encouraging you, the consumer, to swap out your single-use plastic staples like straws and cutlery to combat the plastics crisis.
The key messages that have been put together for World Environment Day do include a call for governments to enact legislation to curb single-use plastics. But the overarching message is directed at individuals.
My concern with leaving it up to the individual, however, is our limited sense of what needs to be achieved. One their own, taking our own bags to the grocery store or quitting plastic straws, for example, will accomplish little and require very little of us. They could even be detrimental, satisfying a need to have “done our bit” without ever progressing onto bigger, bolder, more effective actions—a kind of “moral licensing” that allays our concerns and stops us doing more and asking more of those in charge.
While the conversation around our environment and our responsibility toward it remains centered on shopping hags and straws, we’re ignoring the balance of power that implies that as “consumers” we must shop sustainably, rather than as “ citizens” hole our governments and industries to account to push for real systemic change.
It’s important to acknowledge that the environment isn’t everyone’s priority-or even most people’s. We shouldn’t expect it to be. In her latest book, Why Good People Do Bad Environmental Things. Wellesley College professor Elizabeth R. DeSombre argues that the best way to collectively change the behavior of large numbers of people is for the change to be structural.
This might mean implementing policy such as a plastic tax that adds a cost to environmentally problematic action, or banning single-use plastics altogether. India has just announced it will “eliminate all single-use plastic in the country by 2022.” There are also incentive-based ways of making better environmental choices easier, such as ensuring recycling is at least as easy as trash disposal.
DeSombre isn’t saying people should stop caring about the environment. It’s just that individual actions are too slow, she says, for that to be the only, or even primary, approach to changing widespread behavior.
None of this is about writing off the individual. It’s just about putting things into perspective. We don’t have time to wait. We need progressive policies that shape collective action （and rein in polluting businesses）， alongside engaged citizens pushing for change.
36. Some celebrities star in a new video to
A. demand new laws on the use of plastics
B. urge consumers to cut the use of plastics
C. invite public opinion on the plastics crisis
D. disclose the causes of the plastics crisis
【答案】A urge consumers to cut the use of plastics
【解析】從題干” some celebrities star in a new video to”定位第一段第3句：“ They’re part of a bunch to celebrities starring in a new video for……to swap out your single-use plastic staples to combat the plastics crisis. ”意為：“鼓勵消費者減少單一使用塑料制品，與塑料制品?；拐?rdquo;，與A 選項 “urge consumers to cut the use of plastics”“鼓勵消費者減少塑料袋的使用”含義相符合。
37.The author is concerned that “moral licensing” may
A. mislead us into doing worthless things
B. prevent us from making further efforts
C. weaken our sense of accomplishment
D. suppress our desire for success
【答案】A prevent us from making further efforts
【解析】根據題干the author is concerned that “crisis licensing”定位到第3段，最后一句：“they could even …to have done our bit without ever progressing onto bigger, bolder, more effective actions---… a kind of “crisis licensing “ that eases our concerns and stops us doing more and asking more of those in charge” 意為：“……他們沒有采取更大，更明顯，更有效的舉措…”與A選項“ prevent us from making further efforts” “妨礙我們進一步的舉措”含義相符。
38. By pointing out out identity “citizens”， the author indicates that
A. our focus should be shifted to community welfare
B. our relationship with local industries is improving
C. We have been actively exercising our civil rights
D. We should press our government to lead the combat
【答案】C we should press our governments to lead the combat
【解析】根據題干…“citizens”， the author indicates that, 定位到第4段，最后半句 rather than as “citizens”hold our governments and industries to account to push for real systemic change. 意為：“ 而不是作為”citizens” 去要求政府和工業去推行真正的系統化的改變。言外之意，就是作者希望政府做出改變去應對現在的情形。與C選項中“we should press our governments to lead the combat” “我們應該向政府施壓，使之主導這次抗爭”相符合。
39. DeSombre argues that the best way for a collective change should be
A. a win-win arrangement
B. a self-driven mechanism
C. a cost-effective approach
D. a top down process
【答案】C a top- down process
【解析】根據題干可知這是一道觀點細節題。根據題干關鍵詞可定位在第五、六段“Elizabeth R. DeSombre argues that the best way to collectively change the behavior of large number of people is for the change to be structural” 由該段可知，DeSombre認為集體性的改變大多數人行為的最好的方式就是使其變成結構性的。六段進一步從人們和政府的角度，闡述了這種結構化的改變，所以選項C a top-down process，自上而下的過程，符合文意。
40. The author concludes that individual efforts
A. can be too aggressive
B. can be too inconsistent
C. are far from sufficient
D. are far from rational
【答案】B are far from sufficient
【解析】根據題干可知這是一道觀點細節題。根據題干關鍵詞可定位在最后一段，“None of this is about writing off the individual. It’s just about putting things into perspective. We don’t have time to wait. We need progressive policies that shape collective action, alongside engaged citizens pushing for change.”由該段可知，作者認為并不是要抹殺個人，只是換一個角度去思考問題，我們沒時間再等待，我們需要能夠形成集體行為的進步政策，以及推動變革的熱心公民。所以作者強調個人的努力還遠遠不夠，還需要政策的進一步支持，選擇B選項，are far from sufficient。
You are going to read a list of headings and a text. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A-G for each numbered paragraph（41-45）。 Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET.（10 points）
Five ways to make conversation with anyone
In choosing a new home, Camille McClain’s kids have single demand: a backyard.
McClain’s little one aren’t the only kids who have an opinion when it comes to housing, and in many cases youngsters’ views weigh heavily on parents’ real estate decisions, according to a 2018 Harris Poll survey of more than 2,000 U.S. adults.
While more families buck an older-generation proclivity to leave kids in the dark about real estate decisions, realty agents and psychologists have mixed views about the financial, personal and long-term effects kids’ opinions may have.
The idea of involving children in a big decision is a great idea because it can help them feel a sense of control and ownership in what can be an overwhelming process, said Ryan Hooper, clinical psychologist in Chicago.
“Children may face serious difficulties in coping with significant moves, especially if it removes them from their current school or support system,”he said.
Greg Jaroszewski, a real estate brokers with Gagliardo Realty Associates, said he’s not convinced that kids should be involved in selecting a home—but their opinions should be considered in regards to proximity to friends and social activities, if possible.
Younger children should feel like they’re choosing their home—without actually getting a choice in the matter, said Adam Bailey, a real estate attorney based in New York.
Asking them questions about what they like about the backyard of a potential home will make them feel like they’re being included in the decision-making process, Bailey said.
Many of the aspects of homebuying aren’t a consideration for children, said Tracey Hampson, a real estate agent based in Santa Clarita, Calif. And placing too much emphasis on their opinions can ruin a fantastic home purchase.
“Speaking with your children before you make a real estate decision is wise, but I wouldn’t base the purchasing decision solely on their opinions.”Hampson said.
The other issue is that many children-especially older ones-may base their real estate knowledge on HGTV shows, said Aaron Norris of The Norris Group in Riverside, Calif.
“They love Chip and Joanna Gaines just as much as the rest of us,” he said. “HGTV has seriously changed how people view real estate. It’s not shelter, it’s a lifestyle. With that mindset change come some serious money consequences.”
Kids tend to get stuck in the features and the immediate benefits to them personally, Norris said.
Parents need to remind their children that their needs and desires may change over time, said Julie Gurner, a real estate analyst with FitSmallBusiness.com.
“Their opinions can change tomorrow,”Gurner said.“Harsh as it may be to say, that decision should likely not be made contingent on a child’s opinions, but rather made for them with great consideration into what home can meet their needs best-and give them an opportunity to customize it a bit and make it their own.”
This advice is more relevant now than ever before, even as more parents want to embrace the ideas of their children, despite the current housing crunch.
41、【答案】A（remarks that significant moves may pose challenges to children）
【解析】題干考察Ryan Hooper的觀點，回文定位Ryan Hooper這個人說的話，一共兩句，很多同學容易根據第一句話（第四段）誤選D選項。仔細觀察D選項，原文第四段說的是應該給孩子a sense of control and ownership, D選項說的是a sense of involvement，屬于偷換概念，因此排除；再看Ryan Hooper說的第二句話（第5段），根據第二句話，得出A選項是Ryan Hooper觀點的等價代換，其中significant moves 對應原文中的significant moves，pose challenges to children就等于原文中的children may face serious difficulties. 故此題選A。
42、【答案】D（thinks that children should be given a sense of involvement in……）
【解析】題干考察Adam Bailey的觀點，回文定位Ryan Hooper這個人說的話在第七段，第八段。其實這兩句話意思幾乎一致，為同義復現，第七段中的 should feel like they are choosing their home 等同于第八段中的…will make them feel like they are being included in the decision-making process，D選項中的involvement 對應原文中的being included, in homebuying decisions對應原文的in the decision-making process. 故此題選擇D。
43、【答案】C（advises that home purchases should not be based only on……）
【解析】 根據人名“Tracy Hampson”定位至第十段，“Speaking with your children before you make a decision is wise, but I wouldn’t base the purchasing decision solely on their opinions.”這句話中的 wouldn’t base the purchasing decision solely on their opinions是 should not be based only on children’s opinions 的同義改寫。
44、【答案】G（assumes that many children’s views on real estate are ……）
【解析】定位Aaron Norris,在原文第十一段，往前看他的觀點The other issue is that…on HGTV shows句意為很多孩子對房地產的知識基于HGTV的節目，再看下一段（也是Aaron Norris的觀點），HGTV has…changed how people view real estate…首先HGTV shows為G選項中media的同義替換，其次view real estate三詞均可在選項和原文中找到對應，最后選項中influenced對應文中的changed，所以正答為G。
45、【答案】F（believes that homebuying decisions should be based on ……）
【解析】本題問的是Julie Gurner的觀點。定位至文章倒數第二、三段。倒數三段中說到parents need to remind their children that their needs and desires…在此提出了父母要向孩子說明needs需求以及desires欲望這兩方面，而緊接著倒數二段中直接又提到their opinions can change tomorrow…能夠確定JG這人對于opinions持否定態度正好對應到F選項中的rather than their opinions。因此確定F選項為正確答案。
Section Ⅲ Translation
Translate the following text into Chinese. Write your translation neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. （15 points）
It is easy to underestimate English writer James Heriot. He had such a pleasant, readable style that one might think that anyone could imitate it. How many times have I heard people say “I could write a book. I just haven’t the time.” Easily said. Not so easily done. James Herriot, contrary to pupular opinion, did not find it easy in his early days of, as he put it, “having a go at the writing game”。 While he obviously had an abundance of natural talent, the final, polished work that he gave to the world was the result of years of practising, re-writing and reading. Like the majority of authors, he had to suffer many disappointments and rejections along the way, but these made him all the more determined to succeed. Everything he achieved in life was earned the hard way and his success in the literary field was no exception.
Section IV Writing
47. Directions: Suppose you have to cancel your travel plan and will not be able to visit professor Smith, write him an email to
Suppose Professor Smith asked you to plan a debate on the theme of traffic. Write him an email to
1） Suggest a specific topic with your reasons, and
2） Tell him about your arrangements.
You should write about 100 words on the ANSWER SHETE.
Do not use your one name. Use “Li Ming” instead. （10 points）
48. Directions: Write an essay based on the chart below. In your writing, you should
1） interpret the chart, and
2） give your comments
You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET. （15 points）